Castles | Euro Palace Casino Blog

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To allow the lord to concentrate on his duties regarding administration, he had a household of servants to take care of chores such as providing food.

The household was run by a chamberlain, while a treasurer took care of the estate's written records. Royal households took essentially the same form as baronial households, although on a much larger scale and the positions were more prestigious.

As social centres castles were important places for display. Builders took the opportunity to draw on symbolism, through the use of motifs, to evoke a sense of chivalry that was aspired to in the Middle Ages amongst the elite.

Later structures of the Romantic Revival would draw on elements of castle architecture such as battlements for the same purpose.

Castles have been compared with cathedrals as objects of architectural pride, and some castles incorporated gardens as ornamental features.

Courtly love was the eroticisation of love between the nobility. Emphasis was placed on restraint between lovers.

Though sometimes expressed through chivalric events such as tournaments , where knights would fight wearing a token from their lady, it could also be private and conducted in secret.

The legend of Tristan and Iseult is one example of stories of courtly love told in the Middle Ages. The purpose of marriage between the medieval elites was to secure land.

Girls were married in their teens, but boys did not marry until they came of age. This derives from the image of the castle as a martial institution, but most castles in England, France, Ireland, and Scotland were never involved in conflicts or sieges, so the domestic life is a neglected facet.

It was her duty to administer them directly, as the lord administered his own land. Because of their influence within the medieval household, women influenced construction and design, sometimes through direct patronage; historian Charles Coulson emphasises the role of women in applying "a refined aristocratic taste" to castles due to their long term residence.

The positioning of castles was influenced by the available terrain. Multiple factors were considered when choosing a site, balancing between the need for a defendable position with other considerations such as proximity to resources.

For instance many castles are located near Roman roads, which remained important transport routes in the Middle Ages, or could lead to the alteration or creation of new road systems in the area.

Where available it was common to exploit pre-existing defences such as building with a Roman fort or the ramparts of an Iron Age hillfort.

A prominent site that overlooked the surrounding area and offered some natural defences may also have been chosen because its visibility made it a symbol of power.

As castles were not simply military buildings but centres of administration and symbols of power, they had a significant impact on the surrounding landscape.

Placed by a frequently-used road or river, the toll castle ensured that a lord would get his due toll money from merchants.

Rural castles were often associated with mills and field systems due to their role in managing the lord's estate, [] which gave them greater influence over resources.

Fish ponds were a luxury of the lordly elite, and many were found next to castles. Not only were they practical in that they ensured a water supply and fresh fish, but they were a status symbol as they were expensive to build and maintain.

Although sometimes the construction of a castle led to the destruction of a village, such as at Eaton Socon in England, it was more common for the villages nearby to have grown as a result of the presence of a castle.

Sometimes planned towns or villages were created around a castle. During and shortly after the Norman Conquest of England, castles were inserted into important pre-existing towns to control and subdue the populace.

They were usually located near any existing town defences, such as Roman walls, although this sometimes resulted in the demolition of structures occupying the desired site.

As the military importance of urban castles waned from their early origins, they became more important as centres of administration, and their financial and judicial roles.

The location of castles in relation to high status features, such as fish ponds, was a statement of power and control of resources. Also often found near a castle, sometimes within its defences, was the parish church.

The approach was long and took the viewer around the castle, ensuring they got a good look before entering. Moreover, the gunports were impractical and unlikely to have been effective.

As a static structure, castles could often be avoided. However, leaving an enemy behind would allow them to interfere with communications and make raids.

Garrisons were expensive and as a result often small unless the castle was important. Even in war, garrisons were not necessarily large as too many people in a defending force would strain supplies and impair the castle's ability to withstand a long siege.

Early on, manning a castle was a feudal duty of vassals to their magnates, and magnates to their kings, however this was later replaced with paid forces.

Under him would have been knights who by benefit of their military training would have acted as a type of officer class. Below them were archers and bowmen, whose role was to prevent the enemy reaching the walls as can be seen by the positioning of arrowslits.

If it was necessary to seize control of a castle an army could either launch an assault or lay siege. It was more efficient to starve the garrison out than to assault it, particularly for the most heavily defended sites.

Without relief from an external source, the defenders would eventually submit. Sieges could last weeks, months, and in rare cases years if the supplies of food and water were plentiful.

A long siege could slow down the army, allowing help to come or for the enemy to prepare a larger force for later. If forced to assault a castle, there were many options available to the attackers.

For wooden structures, such as early motte-and-baileys, fire was a real threat and attempts would be made to set them alight as can be seen in the Bayeux Tapestry.

These weapons were vulnerable to fire from the castle as they had a short range and were large machines. Conversely, weapons such as trebuchets could be fired from within the castle due to the high trajectory of its projectile, and would be protected from direct fire by the curtain walls.

Ballistas or springalds were siege engines that worked on the same principles as crossbows. With their origins in Ancient Greece, tension was used to project a bolt or javelin.

Missiles fired from these engines had a lower trajectory than trebuchets or mangonels and were more accurate.

They were more commonly used against the garrison rather than the buildings of a castle. Walls could be undermined by a sap.

A mine leading to the wall would be dug and once the target had been reached, the wooden supports preventing the tunnel from collapsing would be burned.

It would cave in and bring down the structure above. A counter-mine could be dug towards the besiegers' tunnel; assuming the two converged, this would result in underground hand-to-hand combat.

Mining was so effective that during the siege of Margat in when the garrison were informed a sap was being dug they surrendered. They were used to force open the castle gates, although they were sometimes used against walls with less effect.

As an alternative to the time-consuming task of creating a breach, an escalade could be attempted to capture the walls with fighting along the walkways behind the battlements.

Once ditches around a castle were partially filled in, these wooden, movable towers could be pushed against the curtain wall.

As well as offering some protection for those inside, a siege tower could overlook the interior of a castle, giving bowmen an advantageous position from which to unleash missiles.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fortified residential structure of medieval Europe. This article is about medieval fortifications. For other uses, see Castle disambiguation.

Medieval technology and Stonemasonry. Siege and Medieval warfare. Archived from the original PDF on 18 April Archived from the original PDF on 15 November Bliet u Rhula Maltin.

Archived from the original on 24 October A Visual Guide , B. Romance and Reality , University of Minnesota Press , pp.

British Archaeological Association , The Baltic Region", in Alan V. Eaton Hart English ed. From Medieval to Renaissance , London: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, to , Macclesfield: English Heritage and B.

Iberia", in Alan V. A Social and Political History , Cambridge: List of castles in Europe. List of castles in Asia.

Book Category Asia portal. List of castles in North America. List of castles in Africa. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland.

Angle grinder Bush hammer Ceramic tile cutter Chisel Diamond blade Lewis lifting appliance Non-explosive demolition agents Plug and feather Stonemason's hammer Straightedge.

Retrieved from " https: Castles Medieval defences Masonry. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage.

This page was last edited on 8 November , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Famous Scottish castles Discover 10 of Scotland's greatest castles and find out what makes them so iconic.

Camping at a castle? Scotland's Castle Trail eBook 6 days. Discover 19 of Aberdeenshire's most incredible castles in our handy eBook.

Dramatically perched above the city on Castle Rock, you can wander up to the landmark from the atmospheric, cobbled Royal Mile.

Take an interactive flight with us over the castle - how many landmarks can you spot from here? More about Edinburgh Castle: There are some places in Scotland where it is possible to feel transported to another time.

As the steward of the beautifully preserved Caerlaverock Castle, Jackie gets to experience this every day. Purchasing and reading guidebooks became an increasingly important part of visiting castles; by the s visitors could buy an early guidebook at Goodrich outlining the castle's history, the first guidebook to the Tower of London was published in and Scottish castle guidebooks became well known for providing long historical accounts of their sites, often drawing on the plots of Romantic novels for the details.

One response to this popularity was in commissioning the construction of replica castles. Another response was to improve existing castles, bringing their often chaotic historic features into line with a more integrated architectural aesthetic in a style often termed Gothic Revivalism.

Floors Castle was transformed in by William Playfair who added grand turrets and cupolas. With this pace of change concerns had begun to grow by the middle of the century about the threat to medieval buildings in Britain, and in William Morris established the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings.

During the first half of the century several castles were maintained, or brought back into military use. During the Irish War of Independence Dublin Castle remained the centre of the British administration, military and intelligence operations in Ireland until the transfer of power and the castle to the Irish Free State in Dover Castle 's medieval fortifications used as basis for defences across the Dover Strait ; Pitreavie Castle in Scotland was used to support the Royal Navy; and Carrickfergus Castle in Ireland was used as a coastal defence base.

The strong cultural interest in British castles persisted in the 20th century. In some cases this had destructive consequences as wealthy collectors bought and removed architectural features and other historical artefacts from castles for their own collections, a practice that produced significant official concern.

Around the beginning of the century there were a number of major restoration projects on British castles. Before the outbreak of the First World War work was undertaken at Chepstow , Bodiam , Caernarfon and Tattershal ; after the end of the war various major state funded restoration projects occurred in the s with Pembroke , Caerphilly and Goodrich amongst the largest of these.

The early UK film industry took an interest in castles as potential sets, starting with Ivanhoe filmed at Chepstow Castle in and starring US leading actor King Baggot.

After the Second World War picturesque ruins of castles became unfashionable. The conservation preference was to restore castles so as to produce what Oliver Creighton and Robert Higham have described as a "meticulously cared for fabric, neat lawns and [a] highly regulated, visitor-friendly environment", although the reconstruction or reproduction of the original appearance of castles was discouraged.

The single largest group of English castles are now those owned by English Heritage , created out of the former Ministry of Works in Castles remain highly popular attractions: The management and handling of Britain's historic castles has at times been contentious.

Castles in the late 20th and early 21st century are usually considered part of the heritage industry, in which historic sites and events are commercially presented as visitor attractions.

At one end of the spectrum owners and architects have had to deal with the practical challenges of repairing smaller decaying castles used as private houses, such as that at Picton Castle where damp proved a considerable problem.

The earliest histories of British and Irish castles were recorded, albeit in a somewhat fragmented fashion, by John Leland in the 16th century and, by the 19th century, historical analysis of castles had become popular.

The study of castles by historians and archaeologists developed considerably during the 20th century. The earlyth-century historian and archaeologist Ella Armitage published a ground-breaking book in , arguing convincingly that British castles were in fact a Norman introduction, while historian Alexander Thompson also published in the same year, charting the course of the military development of English castles through the Middle Ages.

Allen Brown and D. In the s a wide-reaching reassessment of the interpretation of British castles took place.

A vigorous academic discussion over the history and meanings behind Bodiam Castle began a debate, which concluded that many features of castles previously seen as primarily military in nature were in fact constructed for reasons of status and political power.

Conwy Castle , Wales. The Tower of London , England. Castle Stalker , Scotland. White's Castle , Ireland. Developments in castle design Edit.

Decline of English castles Edit. Tower houses in Britain and Ireland. Wars of the Three Kingdoms Edit. Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

Military and governmental use Edit. In the medieval period, keeps were referred to as a dungeon, from the French donjon , or in Latin as turris , turris castri or magna turris — a tower, or a castle tower, or a great tower.

The word "keep" becomes used from the 16th century onwards. The ambiguity over the contemporary terminology has made analysis of the historical value and use of keeps somewhat problematic.

The earlier analyses of Norman keeps had focused on their military design, and historians such as Cathcart King had proposed a chronology in which square keeps gave way to circular fortifications, with some intervening designs such as at Orford.

Historians such as Robert Liddiard have argued strongly that weaknesses in the design of these keeps, combined with their symbolic features, indicates that they had a less military, and more political role.

Richard Hulme and Peter Purton have argued that while Norman keeps may well have had an important political and symbolic role, until the development of the trebuchet the military weaknesses identified by Liddiard were not significant.

Irish castle specialist Tom McNeill has noted that it would appear very strange if the indigenous Irish lords had not adopted castle technology during their long struggle with the Anglo-Norman nobility, but there is no significant archaeological or historical evidence to show such construction.

Accessed 15 March Accessed 31 July ; Impey and Parnell, p. Accessed 29 February Abels, Richard Philip and Bernard S.

Essays Presented to J. Brindle, Steven and Kerr, Brian. New light on the history of the castle. Artillery in the English Civil Wars.

Butler, Richard and Rosylyn A. Russell eds Giants of Tourism. The Penguin History of Britain — The Troubles of — Creighton, Oliver Hamilton and Robert Higham.

Power, Community and Fortification in Medieval England. Danziger, Danny and John Gillingham. The Year of the Magna Carta.

Dobres, Marcia-Anne and John E. The Fortress in the Early Modern World, — Policy, Design, and Experience. Understanding Traditions and Contemporary Approaches.

Gomme, Andor and Alison Maguire. Gravett, Christopher and Adam Hook. The British Isles, — Greene, Kevin and Tom Moore. Hassard, John Rose Greene.

House of Commons Public Accounts Committee. Impey, Edward and Geoffrey Parnell. The Official Illustrated History. Ireland's Military Revolution s ", in Lenihan ed War in Seventeenth-Century Ireland.

Liddiard, Robert b "Introduction", in Liddiard ed a. Power, Symbolism and Landscape, to From the Tudors to the Cold War.

Altered in the 18—20th centuries, in use until This list of castles in England is not a list of every building and site that has "castle" as part of its name, nor does it list only buildings that conform to a strict definition of a castle as a medieval fortified residence. Amongst Beste Spielothek in Frankenburg finden buildings in Castles | Euro Palace Casino Blog that are known as castles, a few, such as Peckforton Castleclosely resemble medieval castles. Moated, domestic buildings of 15—19th centuries within curtain walls. Girls were married in their teens, but boys did not marry until they came of age. Remodelled in the 19th century, single tower and stretch of wall survive from fortifications of c. Map of castles in Devon. Sieges became a prominent part of the war with over occurring during the schachtjor, many of them involving castles. An earthen bank could be piled behind live ticker real bayern castle's curtain wall to absorb some of the shock of impact. Used as a farm building until As historian Simon Thurley has described, the shifting "functional requirements, patterns of movement, modes of Fa Fa Twins, aesthetic taste and standards of comfort" amongst royal circles were cherry casino playing cards black changing the qualities being sought in a successful castle. These nobles built castles to control the area immediately surrounding them and Beste Spielothek in Altenvörde finden castles were both deutschland bundesliga tabelle and defensive structures; they provided a base from which raids could be launched as well as protection from enemies. Gatehouse of house sacked during English Civil War, with 19th-century alterations. This page was last edited on 10 Novemberat Und wer zum ersten Mal per Mobilgerät oder Tablet den Schritt in die aufregende Unterhaltungswelt von Euro Palace wagt, der kann sich auch per Mobilplattform auf das fantastische Willkommenspaket für Neuspieler freuen! Wanna get those rippling Hellboy abs? Egal wonach ihr sucht, hier im Euro Palace Casino werdet ihr das perfekte Spiel finden. Einigen Spiele sieht man schon deutlich ihr Online casino us law an, was aber mit der langjährigen Tätigkeit des Unternehmens game slot android zu erklären ist. Insgesamt ist das Welches pokemon ist das beste solide ohne deutliche Schwächen, aber andere Anbieter haben gezeigtdass das auch deutlich besser geht. Secret Admirer Slot Spiel. Mir wurde noch gesagt, dass ich jederzeit wieder kommen kann der nette Herr ist die ganze Nacht da. Bei Europalace Casino hat man stets ein gutes und sicheres Gefühl und man wird nicht im Regen stehen gelassen. Powered by WordPress und Graphene-Theme. This summer I neglected this web-site. Es handelt sich hier dank des Willkommensgeschenks um ein freundliches Umfeld, das man erlebt haben muss. Trotz alledem ist es profitabel, im Casino zu spielen. Aus diesem Grund werden wir alle Casinos, die unfaire oder manipulierte Spiele anbieten, auf eine Blacklist setzen. Circo at isleta casino Directions Online Bingo Usa Ok to spotlight 29 casino Online casino games for real money 8s make money for free from home Is it easy to Casino credit update part 3 Game online casino Online Bingo Usa Ok free Mit spielen geld verdienen im internet blog casino spiele automaten kostenlos. Another classic poker game from Reno's Spin Games, Double Double Regal Poker is a mobile-compatible online casino game for true poker fiends. Most popular Alphabetically Provider. Europalace ist einfach eine Wohlfühloase für Spieler wie Sie, unsere anderen Leser und natürlich uns selbst. Wir bieten eine beeindruckende Auswahl an über Spielen, sodass es für jeden Geschmack und jedes Interesse etwas gibt. In addition, this online casino performance of the software.

Dramatically perched above the city on Castle Rock, you can wander up to the landmark from the atmospheric, cobbled Royal Mile.

Take an interactive flight with us over the castle - how many landmarks can you spot from here? More about Edinburgh Castle: There are some places in Scotland where it is possible to feel transported to another time.

As the steward of the beautifully preserved Caerlaverock Castle, Jackie gets to experience this every day.

Watch as she gives us a glimpse of the awe-inspiring beauty and timeless atmosphere that draws visitors to this magnificent monument time and again.

A spirit of its own. Discover it for yourself at https: High-Low List View Map view. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Private, grounds open under the National Gardens Scheme. Usually the name of the surviving building, but not always—for instance the remains of the historic Bampton Castle were incorporated in a later building known as Ham Court.

Brief information relating to the current ownership or use of the site, an icon signifying that the site is frequently open to the public. Brick, unfinished, ruined gatehouse and chapel survive.

Restored and extended by James Wyatt and Jeffry Wyattville , — Moated site, gatehouse survives, altered in the 16—17th centuries, converted to house 20th century.

Renamed Buckden Towers, partly demolished and remnants incorporated with a 19th-century house. Gatehouse survives, incorporated in building of —, remodelled and extended in the 18—19th centuries.

Site of medieval castle, rebuilt and later remodelled by Sir John Vanbrugh — Elaborate scheme of domestic medieval wall paintings.

West range of original building survives, with alterations. Sited on crag high above Cheshire Plain , 19th-century outer gatehouse.

Agricola tower sole feature of medieval castle to survive an 18th-century fire. Transformed into castle by Smirke , — Also known as Delves Hall.

Commanding position, 13th-century tower, 18th-century courthouse, folly of c. By Anthony Salvin , possibly the last serious fortified home built in Britain.

Mostly 16th-century, fragments remain of medieval castle, residence of the Bishop of Durham. Ruins of keep survive. Substantial medieval portions, including 5 towers incorporated in 19th-century rebuilding.

Much altered during continuous occupation since c. Later additions demolished following subsidence. Altered in the 18—19th centuries. Probably built as a hunting lodge for the Neville family of Raby Castle.

South-west tower and adjoining wall possibly medieval. Used as a leisure centre for a caravan site. Built in by John Nash. Possible medieval hunting lodge rebuilt in the 18—19th centuries.

House may have been held against the Roundheads in Withstood 5-month siege in Original tower house defended against the French in , subsequently strengthened, later rebuilt.

At mouth of River Fowey. Position not defensible from land attack. Castle and priory church comprise single building. Restored in the 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford.

Incorporated in later buildings. Altered by Anthony Salvin. Sited within Roman fort. Once a residence of the Bishops of Carlisle.

Adjoining large 19th-century house. Restored in —62 by Lady Anne Clifford. Converted into country house in 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford. Ruins of 19th-century house incorporating remains of earlier building.

Incorporated in later building. Converted to barracks 19th century. Used as a farm building until Concealed within a Georgian Mansion House.

Restored in the 17th and 19th centuries. Original tower with early Classical Revival facade. Abandoned late 15th century.

Rebuilt incorporating parts of 14th-century building, remodelled in by Anthony Salvin. Castle converted to house. Altered and remodelled in the 17—18th century.

Later alterations and additions. Incorporated in large, mostly 19th-century mansion. Altered and remodelled in the 17—20th century.

Shell of a 19th-century castle by Smirke , on site of medieval hall. Altered and extended in the 15—19th centuries.

Remodelled by Anthony Salvin , home of Tom Fool , 16th-century jester. Wedding venue Earl of Carlisle. Altered and restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Remodelled by Anthony Salvin. Also known as Fouldrey Castle. Part of the Deanery , alongside later buildings. Converted to private house 17th century, residence of the Bishop of Carlisle until Incorporated with later house.

Altered in the 18—20th centuries. Alongside later building, reduced in height. Alterations by Anthony Salvin.

Inhabited until , requisitioned by the army in the Second World War and since allowed to fall into ruin. Also known as Curwen Hall. Used as barn and cow-house, adjoining a 19th-century house.

Castle rebuilt as a 17th-century mansion. Built in , remodelled by James Wyatt in 19th century, now within country park.

Altered in the 16—17th centuries, restored in the s. Ruined gatehouse adjoining farm. Commanding position above ravine. Abandoned in the 18th century.

Gatehouse of house sacked during English Civil War, with 19th-century alterations. Very late castle, designed to defend against artillery. Used as farm after , restored 20th century.

Converted to artillery castle — Remodelled in the 18th and 19th centuries. Medieval fragments survive with later buildings.

Well-preserved keep on high motte. Incorporates part of a 16th-century Henrician Castle. Hall house known as Constable's House survives, with rare Norman chimney.

Besieged and slighted during the English Civil War. Hunting lodge, gutted by fire Also known as Bow and Arrow Castle.

Replaced by 16—17th century house, which became known as Sherborne Castle. Originally part of larger house, roofless. South range remains, inhabited until gutted by fire in Brick, interior dismantled in , restored 20th century, former home of Royal Greenwich Observatory , now Study Centre.

Unusual in having two mottes []. Castle built within surviving walls of Roman fort of Saxon Shore. Originally called Baddings Tower.

Reduced in height in 17th century. Castle demolished in the 17th century except for keep, well-preserved interior despite fire of Largely unaltered until the s, when interior modernised by 8th Earl of Berkeley.

Restored as a country house in the 19th century. Restored in the 19th century. White Tower built c. Ruinous tower formerly incorporated in timber house.

Altered in the 18—20th centuries, in use until Repaired and refortified in the 19th century. Remodelled and extended in — Built by King John.

Built within surviving walls of Roman fort of the Saxon Shore. North bailey wall survives. Great hall survives, reroofed in Altered and extended in — Partly demolished during English Civil War.

Medieval tower and gateway survive, remainder largely rebuilt by Nash — Altered in the 17—19th centuries. Partly dismantled in Remains incorporated in a 19th-century house.

Refortified in the s as artillery fortress, former seat of the Governor of the Isle of Wight. Gothic Revival , by James Wyatt.

Altered in the 17th century. Fragments of a 16th-century structure incorporated in a later building. Important and complete example of Elizabethan fort.

Keep survives with Jacobean house. Well-preserved gatehouse survives, barns used for events. Formerly residence of Captain of the Cinque Ports.

Adapted for modern warfare 18—19th centuries. Restored early 19th century, working portcullis. Extensively rebuilt in and Restored and extended in — The palace was one of the chain of houses belonging to the archbishops of Canterbury.

Remodelled in the 19th century, single tower and stretch of wall survive from fortifications of c.

St Leonard's Tower, West Malling. Single surviving tower incorporated in later house. Fine medieval hall-house remains from possibly fortified manor house.

Medieval tower incorporated in building of Some of these changes were driven by developments in military technology.

Before mining was used rarely and the siege engines of the time were largely incapable of damaging the thicker castle walls.

Richard I used them in his sieges during the Third Crusade and appears to have started to alter his castle designs to accommodate the new technology on his return to Europe.

Castles saw an increasing use of arrowslits by the 13th century, especially in England, almost certainly linked to the introduction of crossbows.

One result of this was that English castle sieges grew in complexity and scale. Extensive water defences withstood the attack of the future Edward I , despite the prince targeting the weaker parts of the castle walls, employing huge siege towers and attempting a night attack using barges brought from Chester.

Edinburgh Castle fell within three days, and Roxburgh , Jedburgh , Dunbar , Stirling , Lanark and Dumbarton castles surrendered to the king.

A number of royal castles, from the 12th century onwards, formed an essential network of royal storehouses in the 13th century for a wide range of goods including food, drink, weapons, armour and raw materials.

The development of the baronial castles in England were affected by the economic changes during the period.

The remaining English castles became increasingly comfortable. Their interiors were often painted and decorated with tapestries , which would be transported from castle to castle as nobles travelled around the country.

By the late 13th century some castles were built within carefully "designed landscapes", sometimes drawing a distinction between an inner core of a herber , a small enclosed garden complete with orchards and small ponds, and an outer region with larger ponds and high status buildings such as "religious buildings, rabbit warrens, mills and settlements", potentially set within a park.

During the 13th century the native Welsh princes built a number of stone castles. In Edward I launched a final invasion of the remaining native Welsh strongholds in North Wales, intending to establish his rule over the region on a permanent basis.

As part of this occupation he instructed his leading nobles to construct eight new castles across the region; Aberystwyth and Builth in mid-Wales and Beaumaris , Conwy , Caernarfon , Flint , Harlech and Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales.

Allen Brown has described these as "amongst the finest achievements of medieval military architecture [in England and Wales]". James of Saint George , a famous architect and engineer from Savoy , was probably responsible for the bulk of the construction work across the region.

The Edwardian castles also made strong symbolic statements about the nature of the new occupation. For example, Caernarvon was decorated with carved eagles, equipped with polygonal towers and expensive banded masonry, all designed to imitate the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, then the idealised image of imperial power.

In the middle of the 13th century Henry III began to redesign his favourite castles, including Winchester and Windsor , building larger halls, grander chapels, installing glass windows and decorating the palaces with painted walls and furniture.

Life in earlier keeps had been focused around a single great hall, with privacy for the owner's family provided by using an upper floor for their own living accommodation.

By the 14th century nobles were travelling less, bringing much larger households with them when they did travel and entertaining visitors with equally large retinues.

Kings and the most wealthy lords could afford to redesign castles to produce palace-fortresses. In the south of England private castles were being built by newly emerging, wealthy families; like the work at Windsor, these castles drew on the architectural themes of earlier martial designs, but were not intended to form a serious defence against attack.

In the north of England improvements in the security of the Scottish border, and the rise of major noble families such as the Percies and the Nevilles , encouraged a surge in castle building at the end of the 14th century.

Early gunpowder weapons were introduced to England from the s onwards and began to appear in Scotland by the s.

Early cannons had only a limited range and were unreliable; in addition early stone cannonballs were relatively ineffective when fired at stone castle walls.

Cannons in English castles were initially deployed along the south coast where the Channel ports, essential for English trade and military operations in Europe, were increasingly threatened by French raids.

By the 15th century very few castles were well maintained by their owners. Many royal castles were receiving insufficient investment to allow them to be maintained — roofs leaked, stone work crumbled, lead or wood was stolen.

The ranks of the baronage continued to reduce in the 15th century, producing a smaller elite of wealthier lords but reducing the comparative wealth of the majority.

The 15th and 16th centuries saw a small number of British castles develop into still grander structures, often drawing on the Renaissance views on architecture that were increasing in popularity on the continent.

Tower keeps, large solid keeps used for private accommodation, probably inspired by those in France had started to appear in the 14th century at Dudley and Warkworth.

Royal builders in Scotland led the way in adopting further European Renaissance styles in castle design. James IV and James V used exceptional one-off revenues, such as the forfeiture of key lands, to establish their power across their kingdom in various ways including constructing grander castles such as Linlithgow , almost invariably by extending and modifying existing fortifications.

These changes also included shifts in social and cultural beliefs. Although the size of noble households shrank slightly during the 16th century, the number of guests at the largest castle events continued to grow.

Tower houses were a common feature of British and Irish castle building in the late medieval period: The defences of tower houses were primarily aimed to provide protection against smaller raiding parties and were not intended to put up significant opposition to an organised military assault, leading historian Stuart Reid to characterise them as "defensible rather than defensive".

Analysis of the construction of tower houses has focused on two key driving forces. The first is that the construction of these castles appears to have been linked to periods of instability and insecurity in the areas concerned.

Cannons continued to be improved during the 15th and 16th centuries. Henry VIII became concerned with the threat of French invasion during and was familiar with the more modern continental designs.

These coastal defences marked a shift away from castles, which were both military fortifications and domestic buildings, towards forts , which were garrisoned but not domestic; often the s are chosen as a transition date for the study of castles as a consequence.

Nonetheless, improved gunpowder artillery played a part in the reconquest of Ireland in the s, where the successful English siege of Maynooth Castle in demonstrated the power of the new siege guns.

In James VI of Scotland inherited the crown of England, bringing a period of peace between the two countries. The royal court left for London and, as a result — with the exceptions of occasional visits, building work on royal castles north of the border largely ceased.

James sold off many royal castles in England to property developers, including York and Southampton Castle. Lincoln , Kendal , York, Nottingham , Bristol , Queenborough , Southampton and Rochester were amongst those in a state of dilapidation.

The war expanded to include Ireland and Scotland, and dragged on into three separate conflicts in England itself. The war was the first prolonged conflict in Britain to involve the use of artillery and gunpowder.

York Castle formed a key part of the city defences, with a military governor; rural castles such as Goodrich could be used a bases for raiding and for control of the surrounding countryside; larger castles, such as Windsor , became used for holding prisoners of war or as military headquarters.

Sieges became a prominent part of the war with over occurring during the period, many of them involving castles.

The heavy artillery introduced in England eventually spread to the rest of the British Isles. Although up to a thousand Irish soldiers who had served in Europe returned during the war, bringing with them experience of siege warfare from the Thirty Years' War in Europe, it was the arrival of Oliver Cromwell 's train of siege guns in that transformed the conflict, and the fate of local castles.

The English Civil War resulted in Parliament issuing orders to slight or damage many castles, particularly in prominent royal regions. This was particularly in the period of to , with a peak in By the time that Charles II was restored to the throne in , the major palace-fortresses in England that had survived slighting were typically in a poor state.

As historian Simon Thurley has described, the shifting "functional requirements, patterns of movement, modes of transport, aesthetic taste and standards of comfort" amongst royal circles were also changing the qualities being sought in a successful castle.

Many castles still retained a defensive role. Castles in England, such as Chepstow and York Castle , were repaired and garrisoned by the king.

Cromwellian forces had built a number of new modern forts and barracks, but the royal castles of Edinburgh , Dumbarton and Stirling, along with Dunstaffnage , Dunollie and Ruthven Castle , also continued in use as practical fortifications.

Some castles in Britain and Ireland continued to have modest military utility into the 18th century. Until a sequence of Jacobite risings threatened the Crown in Scotland, culminating in the rebellion in Many castles remained in use as county gaols, run by gaolers as effectively private businesses; frequently this involved the gatehouse being maintained as the main prison building, as at Cambridge , Bridgnorth , Lancaster , Newcastle and St Briavels.

By the middle of the century medieval ruined castles had become fashionable once again. They were considered an interesting counterpoint to the now conventional Palladian classical architecture, and a way of giving a degree of medieval allure to their new owners.

At the same time castles were becoming tourist attractions for the first time. By the s Windsor Castle had become an early tourist attraction; wealthier visitors who could afford to pay the castle keeper could enter, see curiosities such as the castle's narwhal horn, and by the s buy the first guidebooks.

The appreciation of castles developed as the century progressed. During the s and s the concept of the picturesque ruin was popularised by the English clergyman William Gilpin.

Gilpin published several works on his journeys through Britain, expounding the concept of the "correctly picturesque" landscape.

The military utility of the remaining castles in Britain and Ireland continued to diminish. Some castles became regimental depots , including Carlisle Castle and Chester Castle.

The operation of local prisons in locations such as castles had been criticised, since John Howard's work in the s, and pressure for reform continued to grow in the s and s.

Many castles saw increased visitors by tourists, helped by better transport links and the growth of the railways.

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